1996Public Service

Boss Hog

Information Sources
The News & Observer Staff
February 21, 1995

Each day's stories and graphics for the Boss Hog series identified a number sources of specific information and quotes. In addition those sources, reporters drew on a variety of additional interviews and documents. Here are details on some primary additional sources of information, grouped by subject matter and listed alphabetically:

N.C. Dept. of Agriculture

  1. C. Ray Campbell, plant/waste/solution advisory section, Agronomy Division.
  2. Claude W. Carraway, director, meat and poultry inspection, Veterinary Division.
  3. Donald W. Eaddy, director, Agronomy Division.
  4. Ernest T. Seneca, assistant director of public affairs.
  5. W. Tom Slade, 733-7136, marketing supervisor, Division of Marketing.
  6. Maurice A. Weaver, deputy commissioner.

N.C. Division of Environmental Management

  1. Jim Bales, regional groundwater supervisor, Fayetteville.
  2. Robert B. Cheek, groundwater section.
  3. Grady Dobson, Fayetteville Regional Office
  4. David R. Holsinger, environmental engineer, water quality section.
  5. Kris C. Matson, hydrogeologist, groundwater section.
  6. Colleen Sullins, supervisor, permits and engineering.

N.C. State University

  1. David B. Beasley, head, Biological and Engineering Department.
  2. Johnny Wynne, associate dean and director, N.C. Agricultural Research Service.
  3. Neil Caudle, research editor, Dept. of Agricultural Communications.
  4. Robert Holman, associate director, Water Resources Research Institute.
  5. Kelly D. Zering, extension specialist and associate professor, Department of Agricultural and Resources Economics.
  6. J.P. Zublena, professor and extension leader, Soil Science department.

Other North Carolina government agencies:

  1. Harold F. Askins, special deputy, North Carolina attorney general's office.
  2. Robert E. "Bob" Beck, director, Motor Fuels Tax Division, N.C. Department of Revenue.
  3. Debbie Crane, director of public affairs, Department of Environment, Health and Natural Resources.
  4. Col. A. E. Felton, director, enforcement section, N.C. Division of Motor Vehicles.
  5. Charles R. Fullwood, executive director, Wildlife Resource Commission.
  6. Betsy Warren Harrison, director of public affairs division, Department of Transportation.
  7. C.A. Gardner, deputy chief engineer for operations, Department of Transportation.
  8. Dean H. Jones, applications analyst/programmer, State Information Processing Services, Office of the State Controller.
  9. Ann Jessup, processing assistant IV, photogrammetry unit, Department of Transportation.
  10. Lt. W. T. Keel, enforcement section, Division of Motor Vehicles.
  11. Elora M. Lee, computer systems administrator, state Division of Environmental Management.
  12. Mona Moon, fiscal analyst, fiscal research, General Assembly.
  13. Jack Murdock, secondary roads officer, Department of Transportation.
  14. Eugene Smith, senior deputy attorney general.
  15. William C. Smith, Administrative Officer, Sales & Use Tax Division, Department of Revenue.
  16. Yvonne L. Southerland, deputy director, campaign reporting division, State Board of Elections.
  17. Lynn T. Sumner, lobbyist registrar, Secretary of State's Office.
  18. Andrew A. Vanore Jr., chief deputy attorney general.
  19. Denise G. Weeks, principal clerk, House of Representatives.
  20. Lt. Gordon W. Zeigler, enforcement section, Division of Motor Vehicles.

Federal government agencies:

  1. Harold Gibson, state conservation engineer, U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service.
  2. Michael J. Hinton, planning specialist, U.S. Natural Resources Conservation Service.
  3. Gerald Strickland, U.S. Geological Survey, Raleigh.
  4. Doug Harned, water quality specialist, U.S. Geological Survey.
  5. Jody Eimers, water quality specialist, National Water Quality Assessment Program.
  6. Tim Spruill, head of Albemarle-Pamlico Estuary region, National Water Quality Assessment Program.

Iowa sources

  1. Dr. Lawrence Birchmire, Iowa Department of Agriculture, Des Moines.
  2. Kelley J. Donham, DVM, Institute of Agricultural Medicine and Occupational Health, University of Iowa.
  3. E. Paul Durrenberger, chairman, Anthropology Dept., University of Iowa, Iowa City.
  4. Al Farris, administrator, Fish and Wildlife Division, Iowa Department of Natural Resources.
  5. Don D. Gingerich, former president, National Pork Producers Council, Parnell.
  6. Rev. Carmen J. Lampe, pastor, First Baptist Church, Mount Ayr.
  7. Don Paulin, deputy director, Iowa Dept. of Natural Resources, Des Moines.
  8. Kendall M. Thu, Institute of Agricultural Medicine and Occupational Health, Iowa City.
  9. Joe Weisshaar, hog farmer and president of Iowa Farm Unity Council, Cresten.


  1. Bouton "Boots' Baldridge, River Watch, Wilmington.
  2. Harvey G. Beckham, president, Cape Fear Farm Credit Service, Fayetteville.
  3. Frank Bordeaux, executive director, Agricultural Finance Authority.
  4. Gregory A. Danier, public information director, United Food & Commercial Workers Union, Washington.
  5. Becky R. French, general counsel, N.C. State University.
  6. Karen Gottovi, former N.C. House member, Wilmington.
  7. Gary R. Grant, co-chairman, Halifax Environmental Loss Protection, Tillery.
  8. Bob Hall, research director, Institute for Southern Studies.
  9. Christine Hall, director of elementary education, Brunswick County School System.
  10. Milton S. Heath Jr., assistant director, UNC Institute of Government, Chapel Hill.
  11. Judy F. Hunt, commissioner, N.C. Utilities Commission.
  12. Mary Lee Kerr, Research Associate, Institute for Southern Studies, Durham.
  13. Dr. Ricky Langley, Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Duke University, Durham.
  14. Larry Lawson, Virginia Dept. of Environmental Quality, Richmond, Va.
  15. John M. Memory, lawyer, Pembroke.
  16. Robert Morgan, attorney, former U.S. senator, Lillington.
  17. David C. Nelson, financial analyst, NatWest Securities Corp., New York.
  18. Frank Pace, roadway maintenance unit head, Department of Transportation.
  19. Wilton Parker, Four Oaks.
  20. Jim Perry, chief administrator, Lumber River Council of Governments, Lumberton.
  21. Tom Pollard, attorney, City of Wilmington.
  22. Eric Reeves, City Council member and attorney, Raleigh.
  23. Scott Sauer, Scotland County Manager, Laurinburg.
  24. Ben Shiver, Chatham County Manager, Pittsboro.
  25. Gregg W. Steinmeyer, assistant vice president, marketing research and planning for the Farm Credit Bank in Columbia, S.C.
  26. Claude and Bonnie Ward, Burgaw.
  27. Bruce Watkins, River Watch, Wilmington.
  28. Deborah Van Dyken, attorney, Hillsborough.

Pork producers

  1. Terry Coffey, head of research and development, Murphy Family Farms, Rose
  2. Hill.
  3. Howard L. Hobson, Resource Conservationist, Carroll's Foods Inc., Warsaw.
  4. Deborah Johnson, public relations coordinator, Prestage Farms Inc., Clinton.
  5. W. Robert McLeod, Agronomist, Carroll's Foods Inc., Clinton.
  6. Henry Morris, executive vice president for production, Smithfield Foods Inc., Smithfield, Va.
  7. Mark Underwood, production manager, Carroll's Foods, Warsaw.
  8. Dennis Walker, former manager, Murphy Farms of Iowa, Hampton, Iowa.
  9. Bennie Wilson, producer development/education coordinator, N.C. Pork Producers Association, Warsaw.

Water or soil experts

  1. Edwin E. Andrews III, PG, vice president and principal hydrogeologist, Front Royal Environmental Services Inc., Morrisville.
  2. Ralph Heath, professional hydrologist, Raleigh.
  3. J.M. McCarthy, manager, water quality department, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park.
  4. Richard Maas, director of the Environmental Quality Institute, University of North Carolina-Asheville.


  1. Agricultural Finance Authority, hog farm loan applications.
  2. Campaign Finance and Expenditure Reports, paper and electronic, State Board of Elections and Federal Election Commission.
  3. Center for Rural Affairs, Special Report, "Hog Contracting," 1994.
  4. Leon Chesnin, professor emeritus of waste management utilization at University of Nebraska, affidavit filed with Durham vs. Britt and Barrow, Wayne County Superior Court, Jan. 6, 1992.
  5. Citizens Task Force on Livestock Concentration, "A Citizens Report: Recommendations for the 1995 Iowa Legislature on Concentrated Livestock Production, October 1994.
  6. Lisa Dawley, Duke University, "Wetlands Restoration as a Best Management Practice for Nonpoint Source Pollution Reduction in Chicod Creek," 1994.
  7. Dun & Bradstreet report on Ramoil Management Co., Boca Raton, FL.
  8. Environmental Hydrogeological Consultants, "Analytical Data Chart, Carroll's Foods of Va. Northampton Co. Sites," October 1994.
  9. Environmental Protection Agency, "The Report of the EPA/State Feedlot Workgroup," September 1993.
  10. EPA, N.C. Department of Environment, Health and Natural Resources, "Comprehensive Conservation and Management Plan Technical Document, Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine Study," November 1994.
  11. FAA U.S. Aircraft registrations.
  12. Sen. D.M. "Lauch" Faircloth's U.S. Senate Public Financial Disclosure Report.
  13. Faircloth's Oct. 27, 1994, letter to the secretary of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
  14. Friends of Commissioner James A. Graham agreement with the North Carolina Agricultural Foundation Inc., April 5, 1994.
  15. Gov. James B. Hunt Jr., Executive Order Number 1, which requires gubernatorial appointees and others to publicly disclose certain financial interests.
  16. Rodney L. Huffman, assistant professor, and Philip W. Westerman, professor, N.C. State University Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, "Estimated Seepage Losses from Established Swine Waste Lagoons in the Lower Coastal Plain of North Carolina." Paper No. BAE-94-13 of the department's Journal Series. Awaiting publication.
  17. Huffman, J.W. Gilliam, A.E. Morey, R.B. Daniels, "Potential for Aquifer Contamination From Agricultural Chemicals," Paper for June 1994 meeting of The American Society of Agricultural Engineers.
  18. Huffman and Westerman, "Seepage and Electromagnetic Terrain Conductivity Around New Swine Lagoons." Paper for June 1991 meeting of American Society of Agricultural Engineers.
  19. The Economic Impacts of Increased Contract Swine Production in Missouri, John E. Ikerd, University of Missouri.
  20. International Alliance for Sustainable Agriculture report, "Feedlots and Preserving Water Quality: Implications of the Clean Water Act.' December 1993.
  21. Iowa Corporate or Partnership Farming Law.
  22. Iowa Department of Natural Resources, "Animal Waste Control Programs of Iowa and Eight Other States," October 1994.
  23. Dean MacCannell, University of California at Davis, "Agribusiness and the Small Community."
  24. Former Gov. James G. Martin, speeches and press releases.
  25. Midwest Plan Service/U.S. Department of Agriculture, "Livestock Waste Facilities Handbook,' March 1985.
  26. Allan G. Mueller, professor emeritus, agricultural economics, University of Illinois, "Economies of Size in Hog Production: Is size related to Profitability?"
  27. Murphy Farms Inc., News and Views.
  28. Wendell H. Murphy, Statement of Economic Interest for Executive Order No. 1, Nov. 30, 1994.
  29. NatWest Securities, New York, N.Y., strategic assessment, Smithfield Foods Inc.
  30. N.C. Agricultural Research Service, "Swine Industry in North Carolina," January 1995.
  31. N.C. Cooperative Extension Service, "Water Quality and Waste Management, Swine Waste Management," November 1994.
  32. N.C. Cooperative Extension Service, "Pollutants in Groundwater: Health Effects,"August 1990.
  33. N.C. and U.S. Department of Agriculture swine production statistics.
  34. N.C. Department of Agriculture, press releases, 1989-1994.
  35. N.C. Department of Agriculture, Directory of Packing Houses Operating under North Carolina Meat and Poultry Inspection Service.
  36. N.C. Department of Agriculture letters to various farm corporations with with farm map enclosed.
  37. N.C. Department of Commerce, job statistics.
  38. N.C. Department of Environment, Health and Natural Resources, "Report of Proceedings to the Nondischarge Rules," 1992.
  39. N.C. Department of Environment, Health and Natural Resources databases: ground water incident; compliance monitoring; discharge; non-discharge; water quality; enforcement tracking; CAFO.
  40. N.C. Division of Environmental Management, Report No. 86-05, "Animal Operations and Water Quality in N.C.. June 1985.
  41. N.C. DEM, Animal Waste Enforcement Actions file, February 1995.
  42. N.C. DEM, "General Summary of Information Available on the Impact of Concentrated Livestock Feedlots on Groundwater," December 1992.
  43. N.C. DEM, Letter to Northampton County Health Director W. Boone Mora, December 1994.
  44. N.C. Department of Transportation, aerial photos of Duplin County.
  45. N.C. House Agriculture Committee, minutes of March 2, 1993, meeting.
  46. N.C. House Agriculture Committee meeting of Nov. 30, 1994; tape recording of the meeting.
  47. N.C. Office of Administrative Hearings, document file, Citizens for Clean Industry Inc., et. al., v. James S. Lofton, director, Department of Administration, et. al., June 1991.
  48. N.C. Office of State Personnel, personnel records.
  49. N.C. Pork Producers Association Inc., audits.
  50. N.C. Pork Producers Association Inc., federal tax returns, Form 990.
  51. N.C. Pork Producers Association, "Checkoff Monthly Statistics Report," January 1995.
  52. N.C. Pork Producers Association Inc. letter in support of Mike Easley, candidate for attorney general.
  53. N.C. Secretary of State's office, lobbying expense records.
  54. N.C. State University, gift records.
  55. Northampton County Health Director Dr. W. Boone Mora, letter to DEM Regional Office, Raleigh, January 1995.
  56. Hans W. Pearl, Kenan Professor of Marine and Environmental Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, "Nutrient Loading, Water Quality and Algal Bloom Dynamics in the Neuse River Estuary: The Role of Nitrogen,", January 1995.
  57. Prairie Fire Rural Action publication, Hog Tied, a Primer on Concentration and Integration in the U.S. Hog Industry, February 1993.
  58. Property tax records for Palm Beach County, FL; Highlands County FL; Broward County, FL; Jackson County, FL; and Wake County
  59. Search warrant and accompanying affidavit, Southern Strategies Inc, Raleigh, Feb. 11, 1992.
  60. Secretary of State's Office, incorportion papers and annual reports.
  61. Smithfield Foods Inc., Annual Report, 1994.
  62. State Board of Elections, report of complaint investigation of Mike Easley.
  63. Kendall Thu, E. Paul Durrenberger, University of Iowa, "Industrial Agricultural Development: An Anthropological Review of Iowa's Swine Industry," paper for the 20th Annual National Association of Rural Mental Health conference, June 1994.
  64. U.S. census records.
  65. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, North Carolina Supplement 633-1, "Waste Utilization."
  66. USDA Soil Conservation Service, "Eastern North Carolina River Basin Study Location Map," September 1994.
  67. USDA Soil Conservation Service, Johnston County, correspondence files.
  68. U.S. Geological Survey, "Basic Elements of Hydrology with Reference to Conditions in North Carolina," 1980.
  69. U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission, Insider Trading Mon., 1995 Invest/Net Request for approval of projects from Access and Public Statement of changes in Beneficial Ownership.
  70. Virginia State Water Control Board, General Permit Regulation for Confined Animal Feeding Operations, September 1994.
  71. Wildlife Resource Commission, boat registration database.
  72. J.R. Zublena, J.C. Barker, N.C. State University Biological and Agricultural Engineering Dept., "Livestock and Poultry Manure Nutrient Assessment," 1994.